This procedure defines and outlines the approach to be employed for performing visual examination of whatever portions of components, weld joints and other elements either before, during, or after manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, inspection and testing, to detect surface defects and recording the results of examination.


AWS D1.1 (*) : Structural Welding Code - Steel
ASME V (*) : Nondestructive Examination
ASME VIII DIV. 1 (*) : Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessel
ASME B31.3 (*) : Process Piping
ASME B31.1 (*) : Power Piping
AWS D1.6 (*) : Structural Welding Code – Stainless Steel
Note: (*) latest edition.


Only QC personnel suitably trained for visual inspection shall carry out the test and evaluate test results. The personnel shall be certified in accordance with SNT-TC-1A, minimum level II qualification or equivalent qualification (CSWIP level 2 or 3).


The following equipment shall be used during testing and/or when are required equipment tools such as magnifier, mirror, welding gauges, light torch or ruler … .


All personnel who carry out visual examination shall have an annual vision test to assure natural or corrected near-distance acuity to read standard J-1 letters on standard Jaeger test chart.


Surface and the adjoining areas at least 01 inch (25 mm), which subjected to visual examination shall be cleaned and free from paint, oil grease, heavy scale or corrosion deposits and any other extraneous matters that could interfere with the test. In the cases of an un-adequate surface will achieved by means of a wire brush, the surfaces may be prepared by solvent cleaning or other suitable methods.


A minimum light intensity of 1000 Lux. (100 fc) is required throughout the examination and for the evaluation of indications. This can verify using a calibrated lux meter as deemed necessary by the level II inspector carrying out the inspection.


The examination shall be made when access is sufficient to place the eye within 24 inches (610 mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 degrees to the surface to be tested.

Mirror may be used to improve angle of vision.

Magnifier may be used to assist examinations.


All indications shall evaluate according to an acceptance criteria of the standard or rules.

A checking sheet shall use to plan visual examination and to verify that the required observations are performed. This check sheet establishes minimum examination requirements


Unless specific in the project specification, acceptance criteria shall examine:

All welds of structural steel shall be visually inspected according to AWS D1.1 table 8.1 (non-tubular) or table 10.15 (tubular).

All welds of structural stainless steel shall be visually inspected according to AWS D1.6 para. 6.28 for statically loaded or 6.29 for cyclically loaded.

All welds of process piping shall be visually inspected according to ASME B31.3 table 341.3.2 .

All welds of power piping shall be visually inspected according to ASME B31.1 para. 136.4.2

Acceptance criteria for materials shall be in accordance with referencing Code Section and Vendor’s documentations.


The testing results shall be reported on a “Visual Examination Report” form.


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Disclaimer: is based on information from multiple sources and our experience with welding and inspection scopes. It is not a replacement for manufacturers directions and is only to provide reminders for inspector.

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