Welding procedure specification for SMAW AWS D1.1

Updated AWS D1.1 2015.

Main clauses in this code for qualification

  • Clause 3: Pre-qualification of WPSs
  • Clause 4: Qualification of WPSs
  • Clause 9: Tubular Structure

What are the different between pre-qualified processes and qualified processes?

  • See Clause 3.1 - Scope.

PQR qualification for

  • Plate: Table 4.1
  • Tubular: Table 9.9

To complete the WPS, I have a highlight an important D1.1 2015 prepare pWPS notes . Purpose to minimize test coupon and reduce number of procedure.

Should we run a single process or multi-processes on a test coupon?

Yes, I recommend to run a single process as following PQR essential variable in the Table 4.5 and Table 4.6. See limitation in Table 4.5 line 34: The omission, but not inclusion, of backing or backgouging

Do we combined two more processes on a WPS?

Yes, provide all essential variables are met Clause 4.

Welding Procedure Specification

Description of WPS

  • I have detailed an instruction for WPS and PQR.
  • Clause 4 - Part A and Part B must understand the scope of qualification.

I suggest to fill the WPS and PQR template or Annex M-2.

Joint details

I recommend to bring all essential variables in Table 4.5 and Table 4.6 to the WPS.

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #31: a change in groove type …
Line #32: a change in the type of groove to a square groove and vice versa.
Line #34: The omission, but not inclusion, of backing or backgouging.

—WPS—

  • Groove type: Single V- or double V- Butt Joint or Fillet Joint.
  • Groove angle: as recommended in Figure 3.2 or 3.3
  • Root opening: as recommended in Figure 3.2 or 3.3
  • Root face: as recommended in Figure 3.2 or 3.3
  • Back gouging and method: grinding or arc gouging.

Positions

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #27: a change in position not qualified by Table 4.1 or 9.9.
Line #30: vertical welding …

Refer to Table 4.6 for SMAW
Line #6: a change in position to vertical up. A 3G vertical up test qualifies for all positions and vertical down.

Note: States in Line #6, see explanation in C-4-8 Essential Variables in commentary section.
…, In Table 4.6, the Essential Variable on line 6 eliminates the need for CVN testing in all positions but does not change the requirements of Table 4.5 regarding welding positions. …

—WPS—

  • Positions: refer to Table 4.1 or 9.9.

Base metals

Base metal Spec / Grade or Type / AWS Grouping find in the Table 3.1 of D1.1 or AWS B2.1.

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #29: a change in base metal or combination of base metals not listed on the PQR or qualified by Table 4.8.

Refer to Table 4.6 for SMAW
Line #1: a change in group number.
Line #2: Min. thickness qualified…

—WPS—

  • PQR grouping material qualification find in the Table 4.8.
  • Backing material: make sure material the same grouping number, see Clause 5.2 and 5.9.
  • CJP groove welds thickness qualified: find in the Table 4.11 (Non-tubular) or Table 9.10 (Tubular).
  • CJP groove welds w/CVN thickness qualified: find in the Table 4.6 line #2 and Table 4.11 (Non-tubular) or Table 9.10 (Tubular).
  • PJP groove welds thickness qualified: See note (d) in the Table 4.11 and note © in the Table 9.10.
  • Fillet welds: See note (d) in the Table 4.11 and note © in the Table 9.10.
  • Diameter qualification: See note © in the Table 4.10 or Table 9.10.

Note: Tolerance of joint details may refer to Clause 5.21 Tolerance of Joint Dimensions.

Filler metals

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #1: Increase in filler metal classification strength.
Line #2: Change from low-hydrogen to nonlow-hydrogen SMAW electrode.
Line #4: Change to an electrode or fluxelectrode classification not covered in AWS A5.1 or A5.5
Line #10: Change in nominal filler metal diameter by increased 0.8 mm.

Any changes in essential variables, PQR required qualification.

—WPS—

  • AWS classification: type of electrode used for qualification, such AWS A5.1 E7108-1 or AWS A5.5 E11018M.
  • Diameter: detail max. diameter of electrode and additional allowance in Line #10 above such max. 4.0 mm.

Pre-heat

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #35: Decrease from preheat temperature by 15 deg. C.
Line #36: Decrease from interpass temperature by 15 deg. C.
Refer to Table 4.6 for SMAW
Line #7: An increase of more than 100°F [56°C] in the maximum preheat or interpass temperature qualified

—WPS—

  • Min. preheat temperature: refer to PQR recorded and Table 4.9.
  • Max. interpass temperature: refer to PQR recorded and Table 4.9.

PWHT

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #37: addition or deletion of PWHT.
Refer to Table 4.6 for SMAW
Line #8: a change in the PWHT time and range …

—WPS—

  • PWHT temperature: see Clause 5.8.1
  • Time at temperature range: see Clause 5.8.1
  • T limits: see Clause 5.8.1

Gas

This section is not applicable for SMAW process.

Technique

Refer to Table 4.6 for SMAW
Line #10: In the vertical position, a change from stringer to weave.
Line #11: A change from multipass per side to single pass per side

—WPS—

  • String or weave: both
  • Multi to single pass/side: multi-pass
  • Peening: None
  • Interpass cleaning: Yes

Electrical Characteristics

Refer to Table 4.5 for SMAW
Line #12: A change in the amperage for each diameter used by manufacturer.
Line #13: A change in type of current (ac or dc) or polarity (electrode positive or negative for dc
current).
Refer to Table 4.6 for SMAW
Line #9: An increase in heat input or volume of weld metal deposited per unit length of weld, over that qualified, …

—WPS—
Welding parameters should minimum follow:

  • Layer / pass of process:
  • Filler metal: class. and diameter
  • Current and Polarity:
  • Amperage and Voltage:
  • Travel Spee:
  • Heat input per length:
  • Other:

.

Procedure Qualification Records

Testing Requirement

Type of qualification tests are required in Clause 4.5

Below table is a sample of testing required.

# Type of tests Clause/Figures reference Acceptance criteria Result Remarks
1 Visual inspection 4.9.1 4.9.1 - -
2 RT 4.9.2.1 4.9.2.2 - -
3 Side bends 4.9.3.1 / Fig. 4.9 4.9.3.3 - -
4 Tensile test 4.9.3.1 / Fig. 4.10 4.9.3.5 - -
5 Macroetch 4.9.4 4.9.4.1 - -
6 CVN tests 4 Part D/ Fig. 4.28 4.30 and Table 4.14 - -

Other

  • Welder name, number shall be recorded in the PQR.
  • Laboratory body shall be recorded in the PQR. I recommend a recognized body to conduct the testing.

Statement at the end of PQR

We, the undersigned, certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared, weld, and tested in accordance with the requirements of Clause xx of AWS D1.1 ( 201x edition ) Structural Welding Code – Steel.

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