Tensile Testing of Metals is a destructive test process that provides information about the tensile strength, yield strength and ductility of the material.
Test methods / specifications
- ASTM A370
- ASTM B557
- ASTM D638
- ASTM E8
- ASTM E21
- EN 2002-1
- EN 10002-1
- ISO 527-1
- ISO 6892-1
- ASTM A962
- ASTM F606
- ASTM F835
- ISO 898-1
- ISO 898-2
- NASM-1312-8 (Formerly MIL-STD-1312-8)
- SAE J429
- SAE J995
Tensile test process
Material strength testing, using the tensile or tension test method, involves applying an ever-increasing load to a test sample up to the point of failure. The process creates a stress/strain curve showing how the material reacts throughout the tensile test. The data generated during tensile testing is used to determine mechanical properties of materials and provides the following quantitative measurements:
- Tensile strength, also known as Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), is the maximum tensile stress carried by the specimen, defined as the maximum load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test sample.
- Yield strength is the stress at which time permanent (plastic) deformation or yielding is observed to begin.
- Ductility measurements are typically elongation, defined as the strain at, or after, the point of fracture, and reduction of area after the fracture of the test sample.
The test sample is securely held by top and bottom grips attached to the tensile or universal testing machine. During the tension test, the grips are moved apart at a constant rate to pull and stretch the specimen. The force on the specimen and its displacement is continuously monitored and plotted on a stress-strain curve until failure.
The measurements, tensile strength, yield strength and ductility, are calculated by the technician after the tensile test specimen has broken. The test specimen is put back together to measure the final length, then this measurement is compared to the pre-test or original length to obtain elongation. The original cross section measurement is also compared to the final cross section to obtain reduction in area.
Elevated Temperature Tensile Testing is a proven method of evaluating the behavior of materials under a combination of heat and tension. When performing an elevated temperature tensile test, the specimen is placed inside a furnace on our test carousel, which is capable of processing up to three specimens at a time. Our computer-controlled system heats the specimen to the required temperature, then allows it to soak. Next, the specimen is loaded into the test frame, where an extensometer in the latest design measures the strain on the specimen as the load is increased