Fire tube boiler corrosion

Dears,

Can anyone advise on what is this kind of corrosion/ deterioration and what could be the reasons behind it. And what are the applicable mitigation and repair methods?

Given info:

  • Tubes/pipes inside fire tube boiler
  • Tubes/ pipes located at top and bottom sections (the problem on the top ones only)
  • Tubes/pipes are submerged by feed water.

Thank you in advance for your help.

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look like impure material utilized.

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